learning

Open Learning Policy Methods

Blended learning: The provision of structured learning opportunities using a combination of contact, resource- based, and/or distance education methodologies, with different levels of ICT support to suit different purposes, audiences, and contexts.

Distance education: A mode of education provision based primarily on a set of teaching and learning strategies (or educational methods) that are used to overcome spatial and/or transactional distance between educators and learners. It is not necessary for learners to attend classes fr equently and for long periods. Instead, it may use a combination of face-to-face interactions, different media, learner support mechanisms, discussions, and practical sessions.

e-Learning (also referred to as ‘technology-enhanced  learning’):  e-Learning uses ICT to access programmes or courses.  It involves the use of electronic devices (for example computers and mobile devices) to provide, access or  interact  with  learning  materials,  interact  with  peers  and  lecturers,  participate  in  discussions  and  do assessments. e-Learning can take place online, offline, or in a combination thereof.

 

Learning management system – LMS: A multi-user software programme for delivering programmes and courses to learners, registering students, administering, tracking, reporting on and documenting their participation, progress, performance and achievement/results. This information is accessible to lecturers, tutors and administrators, and, in most cases, information on each student is made available to the individual concerned, enabling students to track their own progress.

Learning  content  management  system  – LCMS:  A  multi-user  software  programme  enabling  lecturers, instructional designers and course/materials developers to create, develop, modify, store, re-use and organise e-learning content. It includes a centralised repository of learning materials and resources archived so as to be searchable and adaptable for use in any online course. Ideally, an LCMS should be entirely compatible and integrated with the LMS used by the same organisation.

Massive open online course – MOOC: An online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the World Wide Web. Currently most institutions do not award credit for completing MOOCs; however, many award a non-formal certificate of completion on payment of a fee.  There is an international move towards recognising learning obtained through MOOCs in formal learning programmes.

Mode of provision: The method/s by which learning is taking place. There is a move away from traditional, single mode institutions (where all courses and programmes are mediated either by distance or contact-based methodologies) to dual and mixed-mode institutions where courses and programmes are mediated by a range of distance, resource-based  and contact-based methods, with the blend of methods varying from context to context. Internationally there is a move away from individual programmes being accredited either as contact or distance provision.

Online learning: The predominant use of the Internet to learn. Learners have to be connected to the Internet to access and interact with learning materials, interact with peers and lecturers, participate in discussions and do assessments.

Open (and) distance learning – ODL: The use of distance education methods to support the realisation of open learning purposes and principles. Omission of the ‘and’ as in ‘Open Distance Learning’, and possibly the use of the acronym ‘ODL”, imply erroneously that ALL distance programmes are based on open learning principles. This policy framework does not support this term because of the ambiguity associated with its meaning.

Open learning: An educational approach which combines the principles of learner-centredness, lifelong learning, flexibility of learning provision, the removal of barriers to access learning, the recognition for credit of pri or learning  experience,  the  provision  of  learner  support,  the  construction  of  learning  programmes  in  the expectation that learners can succeed, and the maintenance of rigorous quality assurance over the design of learning materials and support systems.

Open Educational Resources – OER: Any educational resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks,  streaming  videos,  multimedia  applications,  podcasts,  and  any  other  materials  that  have  been designed for use in teaching and learning) that are published under an open licence and are available for use without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. Openly licensed content can be produced in any medium: text, video, audio, or computer-based multimedia.

Post-schooling (in the South African context): The provision of education and training opportunities to all people who have left school. It includes education and training for out-of-school youth, and institutions offering second chance learning, Technical and Vocational (TVET) colleges, Community Education and Training (CET) colleges, and education and training offered by the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs), universities of technology and universities, private providers and other training colleges and institutes.

Resource-based learning: Learning which actively involves a range of resources (both human and non-human) in the learning process.

Open Learning Policy Methods

Blended learning: The provision of structured learning opportunities using a combination of contact, resource- based, and/or distance education methodologies, with different levels of ICT support to suit different purposes, audiences, and contexts.

Distance education: A mode of education provision based primarily on a set of teaching and learning strategies (or educational methods) that are used to overcome spatial and/or transactional distance between educators and learners. It is not necessary for learners to attend classes fr equently and for long periods. Instead, it may use a combination of face-to-face interactions, different media, learner support mechanisms, discussions, and practical sessions.

e-Learning (also referred to as ‘technology-enhanced  learning’):  e-Learning uses ICT to access programmes or courses.  It involves the use of electronic devices (for example computers and mobile devices) to provide, access or  interact  with  learning  materials,  interact  with  peers  and  lecturers,  participate  in  discussions  and  do assessments. e-Learning can take place online, offline, or in a combination thereof.

 

Learning management system – LMS: A multi-user software programme for delivering programmes and courses to learners, registering students, administering, tracking, reporting on and documenting their participation, progress, performance and achievement/results. This information is accessible to lecturers, tutors and administrators, and, in most cases, information on each student is made available to the individual concerned, enabling students to track their own progress.

Learning  content  management  system  – LCMS:  A  multi-user  software  programme  enabling  lecturers, instructional designers and course/materials developers to create, develop, modify, store, re-use and organise e-learning content. It includes a centralised repository of learning materials and resources archived so as to be searchable and adaptable for use in any online course. Ideally, an LCMS should be entirely compatible and integrated with the LMS used by the same organisation.

Massive open online course – MOOC: An online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the World Wide Web. Currently most institutions do not award credit for completing MOOCs; however, many award a non-formal certificate of completion on payment of a fee.  There is an international move towards recognising learning obtained through MOOCs in formal learning programmes.

Mode of provision: The method/s by which learning is taking place. There is a move away from traditional, single mode institutions (where all courses and programmes are mediated either by distance or contact-based methodologies) to dual and mixed-mode institutions where courses and programmes are mediated by a range of distance, resource-based  and contact-based methods, with the blend of methods varying from context to context. Internationally there is a move away from individual programmes being accredited either as contact or distance provision.

Online learning: The predominant use of the Internet to learn. Learners have to be connected to the Internet to access and interact with learning materials, interact with peers and lecturers, participate in discussions and do assessments.

Open (and) distance learning – ODL: The use of distance education methods to support the realisation of open learning purposes and principles. Omission of the ‘and’ as in ‘Open Distance Learning’, and possibly the use of the acronym ‘ODL”, imply erroneously that ALL distance programmes are based on open learning principles. This policy framework does not support this term because of the ambiguity associated with its meaning.

Open learning: An educational approach which combines the principles of learner-centredness, lifelong learning, flexibility of learning provision, the removal of barriers to access learning, the recognition for credit of pri or learning  experience,  the  provision  of  learner  support,  the  construction  of  learning  programmes  in  the expectation that learners can succeed, and the maintenance of rigorous quality assurance over the design of learning materials and support systems.

Open Educational Resources – OER: Any educational resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks,  streaming  videos,  multimedia  applications,  podcasts,  and  any  other  materials  that  have  been designed for use in teaching and learning) that are published under an open licence and are available for use without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. Openly licensed content can be produced in any medium: text, video, audio, or computer-based multimedia.

Post-schooling (in the South African context): The provision of education and training opportunities to all people who have left school. It includes education and training for out-of-school youth, and institutions offering second chance learning, Technical and Vocational (TVET) colleges, Community Education and Training (CET) colleges, and education and training offered by the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs), universities of technology and universities, private providers and other training colleges and institutes.

Resource-based learning: Learning which actively involves a range of resources (both human and non-human) in the learning process.

E-Learning or Distance Learning SCAMS

Is Your E-Learning or Distance Learning Training Provider Accredited?

High-quality education can be very expensive, time-consuming and challenging.  Nothing is more disappointing than discovering that a certificate or qualification isn’t worth the paper it’s printed on. Recently some countries even reported that teachers with qualifications from distance learning institutions such as Unisa and web universities are no longer allowed for employment.

DOWNLOAD THE NOTICE FROM THE ETDP SETA HERE

Luckily, there is useful information on how to prevent getting defrauded — as commonly happens with e-learning and distance learning providers, especially on the ODETDP Qualification unit standards like Train the Trainer, Assessor, Moderator and SDF.

It’s important to keep in mind that e-learning, distance learning or CD learning isn’t the same thing as classroom learning.  Furthermore, a service provider who is authorized to provide classroom learning isn’t authorised to provide e-learning or CD correspondence training.  Are there currently Training Providers with the ETDP SETA that have approval to offer courses via e-Learning or Distance Learning?

We would strongly recommend that each learner take extra precaution to confirm if his or her Training Provider has scope to offer his course through eLearning or Distance Learning. You could be fallen for a scam!

Report these SCAMS to your SETA. SAQA or the QCTO.

Keep this in mind as you confirm the training provider’s accreditation, scope and method.

ACCREDITATION

Each Training Provider should mention the following on his or her website, course material or advertising material:

  • Accreditation Number.
  • The SETAs name he or she is accredited with.

You may want to contact the concerned SETA and confirm the accreditation with them in person.  You can also check with the SETA for any appeals or complaints against the provider, or for any reviews on the Training Provider.  You may even consider contacting previous learners for a review.

SCOPE

Training Provider Accreditation and Programme Accreditation (approval) are different things.  It’s advisable to check that the actual programme was approved by the relevant SETA.  The SETA and the training provider should each have a copy of the programme accreditation letter to confirm its dates are still valid.  All 21 SETAs should provide this service.  The unit standard numbers, NQF level and Credits should also appear on the course detail.

CONFIRM THE METHOD OF DELIVERY WAS APPROVED

The method of delivery is how the training provider is allowed to deliver the programme.

By default, a Training Provider is only allowed to deliver the course using the traditional methods — that is, through classroom contact session.

Any Training Provider who offers a course by any other means such as distance learning, e-learning, correspondence via post, CD, Skype or conference learning must have a special approval letter to do so.  This special approval letter should be producible by the Training Provider (on his website, for example) and also verifiable with the relevant SETA.

What questions you should ask before enrolling for a course:

  • Confirm with the relevant SETA (any of the 21) that the Training Provider is accredited.
  • Confirm with the relevant SETA (any of the 21) that the programme is accredited with this training provider, and still valid.
  • If the method of delivery is different from classroom, the training provider should be able to produce the special approval letter from the SETA.
  • Ask about hidden fees such as: Assessment, Re-Assessment, Support or Registration fees.
  • What is the duration of the course? How long do you have to submit your assignments?
  • Request references — previous clients that you can contact.

TRAINYOUCAN  strive for 100% compliance with the SETAs, SAQA and the NQF act.


CONFIRMATION RECEIVED FROM ETDP SETA – 26th of September 2016

From: Mahomed Sader
Sent: 26 September 2016 12:23 PM
To: Mahomed Sader; Ezra S – TRAINYOUCAN SETA Accredited Training Network; Mohamed.B@qcto.org.za
Cc: Nkhensani Mabunda; Herman Letoka; Maswazi Tshabalala
Subject: Mode of Delivery

Respected Skills Development Provider

The ETDP SETA receives many complaints and queries from Skills Development Providers about the modes of delivery of training programmes by competitor providers. The ETDP SETA wishes to place on record the following:

  • All modes of delivery are encouraged to reach as wide as possible and as many learners as possible.
  • Innovation in terms of modes of delivery such as eLearning, Distance Learning, video facilitation, Skype etc etc are encouraged.
  • Innovation in terms of Port Folios of evidence be it hard Cope or ePOE etc etc are encouraged.
  • Innovation in ensuring that the workplace learning is adequately accommodated.

The key issues for the ETDP SETA are that:

  • Only accredited Skills Development providers offer training and must emphasise that providers applying for accreditation may not offer any training until deemed accredited.
  • The ETDP SETA has to be satisfied that the mode of delivery adopted meets the qualification stipulations and I am loathe to go into issues of VARCS and the core criteria used for accreditation as providers should be aware of the issues.
  • The ETDP SETA will only quality assure qualifications and unit standards that are classified under Field 005
  • The ETDP SETA at external moderation will find great difficulty in endorsing learning programmes and especially modes of delivery that have not been pre-sanctioned.
  • To date only one provider has been accredited/granted permission to use an eLearning platform.
  • To date I have not seen any letters awarding distance education accreditation.

I trust that this email clarifies the issues at hand. Please feel free to write to me in the event that you require specific clarity in terms of your modes of delivery.


 

DISCUSSION METHOD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING.

Exchange of ideas between several people is the best process of learning and teaching from one another.
In the classroom environment ,discussion is the best way of promoting conducive learning and convenient teaching situation. It refers to the method of instruction which give pupils an opportunity to express their views or opinions orally on certain issues. One person speaks at a time,while others are listen. It doesn’t always involve the presentation of new information and concepts. It also invoves sharing of ideas and experiences ,solving problems and promoting tolerance with understanding. Discussion method is suitable in many situations and can be used in many situations of teaching and learning.There are different forms of discussion that can be used in the classroom.

Kochhar(1985)identifies two major types of discussions which are formal and informal.

Informal discussions are governed by pre-determined set of rules and it includes debates,panels,symposia etc.

Whilst formal discussions may involve whole group or small groups of people divided with the intention of discussing themes . These are not governed by pre-determnined set of rules.Lets focus on the informal type of discussions.

In the classroom discussions involve a free verbal interchange of ideas for all pupils as a whole. Here the teacher is the leader who guides the discussion . Through conducting the discussion process,ask questions and decides on who should speak. This method can be suitably used in the first stage of child book child approach.
This is where the teacher asks about the assummed knowledge through reviewing pupils’ experiences .For example Do you have friends? Why do you need friends for? Do you sometimes quarrel with them ? What do you do after have a quarrel with a friend?

Small group discussions is better than a whole class discussion. It encourages more pupils to give their own views through open participation . Pupils are divided into small groups of ,four,five,six ,seven ,eight or nine and given questions or task to discuss and then reportback. Each group should have a group leader who is instructed to control the discussion process and someone who can reportback of what has be discussed.

The group setting arrangements should be in such a way that pupils are relaxed and can hear ,see each otherwell. This type of discussions is more appropriate in the second stage of the child book child approach. Which happens to be evaluation stage where pupils can discuss questions related to the text found in the book.For example in the parable of a prodigal son in the bible pupils can discuss this questions:

      •Why do you think father received his son in a positive way?

 

      •Was that the right thing to do?

 

    •Why do you think in such similar situation?

General guidelines to a good discussion should involve a well planning where the teacher should have a clear understanding of the subject topic , content and objectives of the lesson to be discussed.
The teacher’s way of giving instructions should be clearly and effectively communicated in an atmosphere that is conducive for free discussions. Please don’t ridule or belittle pupils. Rather stimulate their interests by giving positive comments and discourage domination of the discussion by the outspoken members in a group.
A teacher who helped the reserved and shy children is doing good than harm by providing the child with an opportunity to contribute. For example ,”John, what do you think about ? or Helen how do you handle this problem ?”

Stick to the topic and discurage private conversation and should conduct discussions to an end as scheduled.

The major advantages of discussion method are :

      ◦It teaches interpersonal skills such as understanding and communication.

 

      ◦It is child centred through provides an opportunity for pupils to learn from each other,thus encouraging teamwork.

 

      ◦It promotes tolerance and helps pupils to understand that they are many aspects or opinions to any one topic.

 

    ◦It also helps leadership ,speaking and listening skills.

The demerits of discussion methods includes time consuming ,easily dominated by the outspoken pupils,those perceived to have high sttus. Some pupils may not interested from listening to others and easily get out of hand and lose direction. Moreover some teachers can neglect planning and take advantage of literally this method haphazardly.

Laws of Learning

Adults Only

These laws are particularly relevant to adult learners.

Law of previous experience : New learning should be linked to (and build upon) the experiences of the learner.

Check the entry level of the participants. Remind yourself that adults bring a variety of rich experiences to the training session. Design activities to ensure easy adjustments to fit different entry levels and to incorporate relevant experiences.

Law of relevance: Effective learning is relevant to the learner’s life and work.

Use simulations and role plays to increase the link between the learning situation and the real world. After a training activity, debrief the participants and discuss strategies for applying what they learned in the game to their real-world context.

Law of self-direction. Most adults are self-directed learners.

Don’t force everyone to participate in every activity. Identify training objectives and let participants select among different resources and activities to learn at their own pace and according to their personal preferences. Involve participants in setting training goals and selecting appropriate types of learning activities.

Law of expectations. Learners’ reaction to a training session is shaped by their expectations related to the content area, training format, fellow participants, and the trainer.

Some learners are anxious about mathematical concepts and skills. Encourage them with intriguing puzzles and short-cut techniques. Other learners feel uncomfortable about making fools of themselves in public while playing games. Establish ground rules that reward risk-taking among participants. Demonstrate non-judgmental behavior by applauding participants for their effort.

Law of self image. Adult learners have definite notions about what type of learners they are. These notions interfere with or enhance their learning.

Reassure participants about their ability to learn new concepts and skills. Motivate them to attempt challenging tasks. Ensure frequent and early successes by making initial tasks simple and by progressing in small steps. However, avoid patronizing participants with simple, trivial tasks. Incorporate learning tasks at different levels of difficulty in your activities.

Law of multiple criteria. Adult learners use a variety of standards to judge their learning experiences and accomplishments.

Encourage participants to choose personal standards and scoring systems. Provide different ways to “win” in your activities. In simulations and role-plays, keep scores related to different criteria. During debriefing, discuss alternative criteria for measuring participants’ performance.

Law of alignment. Adult learners require the training objectives, content, activities, and assessment techniques to be aligned to each other.

Create a training situation that closely resembles the job situation. Teach and test for the same content, using similar strategies. Make sure that the scoring system used in your training activities rewards the mastery of the training objectives.

General Public

These laws apply to all human beings, from infancy to old age.

Law of active learning: Active responding produces more effective learning than passive listening or reading.

Intersperse lectures and reading assignments with active-learning episodes such as quizzes and puzzles. Provide participants with ample opportunities to respond by asking questions, encouraging them to ask questions, answering their questions, and questioning their answers.

Law of practice and feedback: Learners cannot master skills without repeated practice and relevant feedback.

Don’t confuse understanding a procedure with ability to perform it. Invest ample time in conducting activities that provide repeated practice and feedback. Make sure that the training activities incorporate immediate and useful feedback from peers and experts. Use rating scales, checklists, and other devices to ensure that the feedback is objective and useful.

Law of individual differences: Different people learn in different ways.

Use training activities that accommodate a variety of learning styles. Make sure that participants can respond by writing, speaking, drawing, or acting out. Encourage and permit participants to learn individually, in pairs, and in teams.

Law of learning domains. Different types of learning require different types of strategies.

Learn to recognize different types of training content and objectives. Don’t use the same type of activity to teach different types of training. Use suitable designs to help participants achieve different training objectives related to concepts, procedures, and principles.

Law of response level. Learners master skills and knowledge at the level at which they are required to respond during the learning process.

If your training activity requires participants to merely talk about a procedure, don’t assume that they will be able to apply it in their workplace. If you want participants to solve workplace problems, the learning activity should require them to solve problems. Avoid trivial, closed questions with rote-memory answers in your training games. Challenge participants with authentic that require innovative solutions.

All Creatures Great and Small

These laws apply to all animals, include white mice, pigeons, dolphins, and people.

Law of reinforcement: Participants learn to repeat behaviors that are rewarded.

Make sure that training activities provide several opportunities for earning rewards. Require participants to make frequent decisions and responses. During the initial stages of training, reward even partially-correct answers.

Law of emotional learning: Events that are accompanied by intense emotions result in long-lasting learning.

Use training games, simulations, and role plays that add emotional element to learning. Make sure that emotions don’t become too intense and interfere with learning. Make sure that participants don’t learn dysfunctional behaviors because of intense emotions. Debrief participants after emotional activities to reflect on their feelings and learn from their reactions.